The extensive nature of the UN-GOR in R-ARCSS may be a stumbling block in the pursuit of the objectives of the Agreement. It is easy to understand that the expanded Bureau, Cabinet and Parliament have been deliberately designed to fit pragmatically into the pro-Crustan bed of South Sudanese political reality. The budget was to support and maintain a government of five vice-presidents; 45 ministers (including deputy ministers); 550 MPs; and several transitional commissions, bodies and committees will certainly be heavy for a country already burdened by arrears of more than 17 billion South Sudanese pounds (a surplus of US$130 million), including “three monthly salaries, five months of state transfers and twelve monthly embassy salaries,” including members of the Transitional National Legislative Assembly.11 With the previous peace agreement (ARCSS), 1.6 Billion South Sudanese pounds consumed. In the first three quarters of fiscal year 2017/18.12, an additional financial burden would be exhausting and burdensome in the context of a weakened economy. This weakens the government`s ability to implement and the capacity of the peace agreement. As admitted in south Sudan`s 2018/2019 State Budget Speech, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, Arabic: اتفاقية السلام الشامل, Ittifāqiyyah al-salām al-šāmil), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, was an agreement signed on January 9, 2005 by the Sudan People`s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.  The PCA should end Sudan`s second civil war, develop democratic governance throughout the country, and share oil revenues. He also set a timetable for a referendum on South Sudan`s independence. The national army collapsed and various constituencies took up arms as part of a constellation of anti-government – and largely ethnic Nuer – forces under Machar`s coordination. South Sudan`s neighbors and the international community as a whole were shocked and quickly tried to prevent a collapse.
Thus, the peace process in South Sudan took shape under the auspices of a regional organization called the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) with the dual objective of ending the war and facilitating dialogue on a post-conflict political transition. We call on each of the parties to work towards the implementation of this agreement and will continue to support all countries in the region in their efforts to achieve this goal. But much remains to be done. Stakeholders such as the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, the African Union, the United Nations and other governmental and non-State actors must actively support the peace process. Their first challenge would be to address the refugee problem in the region. After its establishment in December 2017, the HLRF managed to facilitate several 15-month negotiations between the Sudan People`s Liberation Movement and The Government Army (SPLM/A-IG) of President Salva Kiir Mayardit, the Sudan People`s Liberation Movement and the Opposition Army (SPLM/A-IO) of Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon and other opposition political parties, which eventually resulted in the R-ARCSS. The R-ARCSS was preceded by five important agreements between the parties and stakeholders in the conflict in South Sudan: the peace process was supported by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and IGAD Partners, a consortium of donor countries. The fact that the peace pact – unlike its predecessor, ARCSS – is politically inclusive and representative is a necessary precondition for successful implementation. Although there are still arguments that some influential individuals and armed groups – such as the splinter factions of certain parties such as SSOA – oppose the agreement16, the extent of the agreement`s inclusiveness should be welcomed as a basis for continued cooperation with non-signatory parties. The agreement provides for the establishment of a UN-RTGo in South Sudan. This UN-RTGo has a mandate to govern for a 36-month transition period beginning eight months after the signing of the R-ARCSS.
Democratic elections will then take place 60 days before the end of the transition period. The same agreement also provides for a single executive president (Kiir), a first vice president (Machar) and four vice-presidents appointed respectively by the incumbent TGoNU, SSOA, outgoing TGoNU and former prisoners. While the First Vice-President is responsible for overseeing the Cabinet Group on Governance Matters, the other four Vice-Presidents will oversee the ministerial groups assigned to them: the Economic Group, the Service Delivery Group, the Infrastructure Group, and the Gender and Youth Group. The IGAD Mediation for South Sudan was appointed by the IGAD Assembly of Heads of State and Government in December 2013 to facilitate ceasefire negotiations and facilitate inclusive dialogue for lasting peace. Three mediators have been appointed to represent Ethiopia (Chief Mediator Seyoum Mesfin, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs), Kenya (Lazaro Sumbeiywo, retired general and mediator of the 2005 Sudan-South Sudan peace agreement) and Sudan (Mohammed Al-Dabi, retired general). Together with Uganda, these four states have been the most influential participants in the South Sudan crisis and the IGAD peace process. The ombudsmen reported directly and exclusively to the Heads of State of IGAD. The Heads of State retained considerable decision-making power over mediation and thus over the direction of the process. IGAD`s leading role in the peace process has been endorsed by the African Union and the UN Security Council, as well as by the United States, China and other supporters of the peace process.
Machar, the leader of the main SPLM-IO rebel group, and other insurgent factions signed the new agreement with the Juba government after assuring that a power-sharing agreement would be respected. The agreement, brokered by Sudan, restores Machar to his former role as vice president. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is a regional organization in East Africa that works together in the areas of peace and security, economic and humanitarian affairs, food security and the environment. At the time of the crisis in South Sudan in 2013, its members were Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda. IGAD member states helped end Sudan`s long civil war in 2005 and guaranteed South Sudan`s right to self-determination in 2011. Its member states, many of which share a border with South Sudan, have long-standing political, economic, social and security ties with South Sudan. The PCA was never implemented as planned. The signing of the agreement was due to skilful international mediation and diplomacy rather than a sincere change in the position of both sides. For the South, the six-year interval prescribed in the agreement before the referendum was held was only a waiting period before the goal of independence could be achieved.
And the northern government has given no indication that it is willing to try democracy and power-sharing as a solution. He remained authoritarian in the north, repressed the opposition, and was more determined than ever to crush the resistance in Darfur by force. Sudan was not a peaceful country under the CPA. The France welcomes the signing of the peace agreement formalizing the revitalization of the 2015 agreement on the resolution of the conflict in South Sudan between the President of South Sudan, Salva Kiir, and Riek Machar. Wednesday`s agreement was greeted with cautious optimism by David Shearer, head of the UN Mission in South Sudan. Fighting between rebels allegedly under Machar`s command and government forces, allegedly under Kiir, resumed less than a week after the signing. However, it is not clear whether these skirmishes are related to the content of the recent agreement; Soldiers on both sides reportedly used force at the request of local leaders rather than Kiir or Machar, signaling a broken chain of command. Nevertheless, this violation comes three months after the collapse of an earlier ceasefire, the Khartoum Declaration, which was signed in late June. Measures like these inspire optimism because they indicate that the government of South Sudan is finally committed to creating a functioning republic. So far, Kiir and Machar have shown their willingness to act responsibly for the successful implementation of the peace process. The APC has created an asymmetrical federal system with a Government of National Unity (GoNU), in which the south should have some representation, and a separate southern regional government (GoSS). The northern and southern regions would also be divided into states, each with its own elected assembly and executive; Elected local governments (called counties in some documents) would complete the picture in each state.
The end result was that the people of South Sudan would elect and report to four levels of government – national, South Sudanese, state and local. Northerners would elect and report to three levels of government – national, state and local. On paper, each level of government had a democratically elected assembly and executive, which also had extensive powers, including tax collection. In reality, the elections did not take place until April 2010, five years after the signing of the CPA. Another potential obstacle is the apparent lack of urgency, determination, political will and political commitment in implementing even simpler objectives of the peace agreement. .